Definition of psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis is a psychological science, founded by an Austrian psychiatrist and psychologist Sigmund Freud. This science was first mentioned at the end of the 19-th – at the beginning of the 20-th centuries.
Initially, psychoanalysis was used in the treatment of nervous diseases. While studying and practicing this method, the scientists started to regard it as one of the psychological theories. Discoveries that were made during people’s treatment made the scientists look at the psychological components of society, pedagogy, child development, mythology and religion from a completely different angle. Patient observations have led psychologists to the conclusion that unconscious desires have a dramatic effect on physiology. While using this idea as the base, doctors have opened new horizons in the treatment of psychosomatic diseases.
From the point of view of psychoanalysis, the vision of human nature fundamentally differs from other areas of psychology. Here, it is viewed from the position of conflict. In the sub consciousness of a person, opposing forces and directions fight with each other. It should be noted that the patient himself does not notice the interaction of unconscious conflicts. On the basis of psychoanalysis, it is possible to determine the degree of unconscious conflict’s influence on the social relationships of the individual, his self-esteem and emotional life.
Physiological needs of the individual are initially recognized as sources of conflict. Man is created by nature as a biological being, led by instincts. Social aspects of behavior come from the moral side of the issue. Biological inclinations cause a person to avoid pain and to look for possible ways to get pleasure. In psychology, this phenomenon is called the “pleasure principle”, which creates the psychological basis of both an individual and the whole society. The human body is designed so that it constantly experiences a state of mental excitement, pushing a person to commit actions leading to pleasure. In psychology, this phenomenon is called attraction.
The infant has no social aspects of behavior, and he is subject only to biological inclinations. Therefore, young children are imperiously and categorically trying to subordinate people around them to their needs and desires. They try to do everything that gives them pleasure, despite the prohibitions of adults. The children’s organism violently resists the pressure of parents and teachers, who during several years are trying to socialize the child, to teach him how to behave in the society. It results in constant whims, anger and frustration of children. The nature initially programmed a child to have fun, and he does not understand why he should behave himself in a proper way, learn lessons, accept prohibitions and punishments. Children’s conflicts are gradually being supplanted and forgotten, but they are not erased from memory. Memories remain at an unconscious level and they are constantly affecting a person’s life. According to psychological observations, children’s successes and failures have a primary influence on formation of the adult’s psyche.
Formation of psychoanalysis as a science
The history of psychoanalysis dates back to the 1880s. That time, Dr. J. Breuer, a Viennese colleague of S. Freud, said that he had managed to eliminate the symptoms of hysteria. The doctor hypnotized the patient, and she started talking about the tragic circumstances of her life. If she were conscious, she would never share this information with the doctor. The patient’s story was accompanied by strong emotions (catharsis). As a result of several sessions, the symptoms of hysteria almost disappeared.
Freud began to introduce the Breuer method in his practice and saw the same results. In 1895, their joint work “Studies of Hysteria” was published. According to the main idea of this book, the symptoms of hysteria were traumatic memories. At a conscious level, a person does not remember these events, but they have a detrimental effect on his psyche.
Another stimulus for Freud to study the unconscious was his presence at a hypnosis session. Being in a hypnotic state, the patient was told that, having recovered, she should take an umbrella in the corner of the room. Having woken up, the woman really got up, walked over to the umbrella, then took and opened it. When asked what she was doing, the patient answered that she was checking the umbrella for serviceability. Hearing the remark that the umbrella was not hers, the woman got embarrassed, blushed deeply and started to apologize.
During the experiment, Freud drew attention to a number of interrelated phenomena:
- the patient unconsciously performs hypnosis-inspired actions, without thinking about encouraging causes;
- the reasons are so effective that a person, without hesitation, executes the orders;
- after committing the action, the patient always finds an explanation for his action.
Using these facts as a basis, the founder of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, derived the theory of the unconscious.
Psychoanalysis of Sigmund Freud
Dr. Y. Breuer, for personal reasons, was forced to abandon the study of psychoanalysis. Freud was so interested in the results that he decided to continue, and began a profound study of the unconscious. Observing the patients, he noticed that the symptoms of hysteria and sexual neurosis that arise in childhood are very similar.
Already in infancy, a child has sexual desires. In order to satisfy them, he uses the organs in a sequence defined by the nature: the mouth, the anus and the genitals. The main peak of activity occurs at the age of 3-6 years. During this period, the child addresses his sexual needs to his parent of the opposite sex. Parent of the same sex is regarded as the child’s opponent. The child is afraid to be punished by a parent of the same sex. The child’s feelings result in a symptom called the “Oedipal complex.” The child is afraid of punishment and imagines the punishment as a damage of some organs, often – the genitals. Therefore, children often practice masturbation. During masturbation, a child imagines the object of his love (for example, the parent).
Freud assumed that the “Oedipus Complex”, along with traumatic events from the past, is the cause of neurosis, since desires and fears are identical in both cases. Fear of punishment and the child’s moral principles act as a barrier to the satisfaction of sexual desires. The “Oedipus Complex” begins to form when the child’s unconscious desires try to go beyond permitted behavior. The child’s psyche regards forbidden impulses as dangerous, and the child starts suffering from some disturbing symptoms. The psyche repeatedly tries to erase unwanted impulses from consciousness. If this attempt is unsuccessful, the child’s body makes a compromise. Unconscious desires come to consciousness in a distorted form, and the body undergoes a process of self-punishment, manifested in the form of discomfort, pain, or activity loss. The conflict between mental forces ends with a compromise, which is accompanied by the appearance of hysterical symptoms, obsessive thoughts, and phobias.
According to Freud’s theory, the symptoms of neurosis have a certain meaning: the person tries to resolve the internal conflict, repeated attempts are unsuccessful and a neurotic state arises.
During his research, Freud noted that the principles of neurotic symptoms are similar to other moral or psychological phenomena. For example, let us take dreams in psychoanalysis. We can try to interpret them. In a dream, a person unconsciously begins to realize children’s sexual desires, manifested in the form of visual hallucinations. However, even in a dream, the psyche fights with such manifestations and weakens the arising unconscious desires. The conflict between common sense and desires leads the psyche to a state of danger. Therefore, a person has terrible dreams and nightmares. They can be regarded as an unfortunate attempt to protect the body from an unconscious threat.
In Freud’s research, two main stages in the study of psychoanalysis can be distinguished. As a result of these stages, important scientific conclusions were made. On the first stage, a dynamic model of the psyche was derived, consisting of three spheres:
- Consciousness – this area includes all parties recognized and controlled by the individual.
- The subconscious consists of hidden knowledge. A person possesses this knowledge, but at the moment he is not aware of this possession. When an emergency occurs, this knowledge is manifested.
- The unconscious. A person, being in consciousness, cannot realize the presence of certain information existing in remote corners of memory. However, this information has a characteristic influence on his behavior.
The second stage was the development of the personality theory. In 1923, Sigmund Freud elaborated the terminology of mental structures. Psychic functions were grouped according to their role in the conflict. According to Freud, there are three psychological structures:
- Self (Ego) – is a mediator between the individual and the outside world, helping a person to navigate in life situations, to control desires and inclinations according to moral principles and conscience.
- It (Id) – is responsible for appearance of desires emanating from sexual impulses.
- Super Self (Superego) – acts as a filter that prevents a person from committing immoral acts. Here, moral principles formed in early childhood come into conflict with desires.
Freudian followers of the psychoanalysis theory
The theory of psychoanalysis radically changed the opinion of psychologists about the methods of psychological treatment. Scientists started to study personality and motives of behavior from another, previously unknown side. Due to Freud, new terms appeared in existing scientific terminology.
- Rationalization – a person’s attempt to justify himself, when the person is trying to explain his behavior by the influence of unconscious inclinations.
- Sublimation – an individual’s attempt to relieve internal tension by redirecting energy to another sphere: engaging in creativity, mastering a musical instrument, etc.
- Repression – a psychological process in which cravings and experiences that threaten self-awareness are repressed into the unconscious.
- Projection – it is a situation when a person tries to ascribe his unacceptable or shameful experiences to other people.
Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis was later rethought and expanded. It continued to develop. . Freud’s followers and colleagues were mainly engaged in studying it. His later followers were called neo-Freudians. Among them are Jacques Lacan, Karen Horney, Erich Fromm and others.
He was one of the first Freudian students, who, on the basis of Freud’s theory, derived his own psychological statements. He characterized the nature of human attraction in a slightly different way. Psychologists who study psychoanalysis, considered Jung’s theory theoretical and a little bit mystical. The essence of his concept lies in the fact that, in addition to personality conflicts, symbolic and cultural-conditioned ideas about all the humanity as a whole play an important role for the human psyche. The concept of Jungian psychoanalysis suggests that mythological experience influences the formation of personality. Here, the primary archetypal images come into conflict.
Carl Jung became the founder of analytical psychology. He divided people into two types: extroverts and introverts. The first type included individuals, whose most important values were connected with external world. The second group included individuals whose most important value were connected with internal world. In addition, Jung derived the concept of collective unconscious, where the archetype is the role model for all of humanity. An archetype is a pattern of behavior that has developed on the basis of religions, myths, and dreams. Carl Jung modernized the Freud experiment based on associations. According to the Jung method, the psychotherapist speaks any word to the patient, and the patient should answer the first word that has arisen in his imagination. A delay or inadequate response indicates a psychological problem. Recovery comes when cause of the complex is identified, and when the patient becomes aware of this cause.. The main goal of psychoanalysis according to Jung is to find archetypes causing mental disorders, as well as symbols associated with them.
Alfred Adler fully accepted Freud’s theory. However, Adler believed that Freud slightly exaggerated the role of sexual attractions. Adler put social factors in the first place. He supposed that the main reasons provoking an internal conflict are the following: dissatisfaction with physical and sexual needs, feelings of inferiority, uncertainty in society. Adler’s concept has made an indisputable contribution to the further study of psychoanalysis, especially to the theory of personal self-assessment. In addition, his research helped to identify the causes of mental disorder typical for “narcissism”.
Adler’s individual psychology is based on the idea of compensation and overcompensation of an inferiority complex smoldering in the depths of the person’s psyche. The concept of compensation is connected with the ability to develop opposing defective skills and character traits, for example, a person with low intelligence tries to find himself in sports. Overcompensation is the person’s desire to overcome an inferiority complex at any cost.
Otto Rank followed Freud in the development and profound research of the “birth trauma” concept. He observed children who, by coincidence, were separated from their mothers in early age, and made stunning discoveries. The main goal of Rank was to overcome the trauma of separation. After several years of work as a psychologist, a new therapy was developed, based on relationship between the patient and the psychoanalyst, where will was a decisive factor. In psychoanalysis, this method is called will therapy.
Development of psychoanalysis in the 20-th – 21-th centuries
Mass study of psychoanalysis began in 1908, after the opening of the International Psychoanalytic Association in Europe. Important works have been published in professional magazines “Internationale Zeitschrift fur Psychoanalyse” and “Imago”. After World War I, the training of professional psychoanalysts began. As a result, the Psychoanalytic Institute was opened in Berlin.
In 1930s, fascism came to power in Europe. A ban was imposed on psychoanalysis: first in 1933 in Germany, then in 1938 in Austria. The majority of famous European psychoanalysts moved to the United States. Three prominent psychologists made a special contribution to the development of psychoanalysis of that time: R. Lowenstein, E. Chris, and H. Hartmann. As a result of their joint work, these scientists derived the basic concepts of psychoanalysis, published in scientific press of that time. In addition, a profound research of the depths of psychoanalysis was carried out by Freud’s daughter Anna Freud. She devoted most of her time to finding methods by which the Ego is able to resist the invasion of unfavorable unconscious impulses. H. Hartmann first proposed the concept of adaptive function of the “Ego”. Afterwards, hypotheses about development of the psyche and about the nature of attraction and maturation were derived.
Psychoanalysis served as the basis for development of narrower fields in psychology. Contradictions of ideas stated by Freud and his followers contributed to the emergence of new trends. Carl Jung developed analytical psychology, Alfred Adler developed individual one. The counterbalance to the works based on the unconscious was the new trend called ego psychology (H. Hartmann and others), based on the autonomy of “Self”.
The main task of modern psychoanalysis is to study the infant’s attachment to his mother and significance of this attachment in later life. There is a theory that mother’s indifference to a child and the absence of love and care manifestation can lead to personality disorders in adulthood. Self-esteem and personality development of an adult are directly related to the relationship between mother and baby.
There are over 20 concepts of modern psychoanalysis, which differ significantly in both the theoretical part and the methods of treatment.
Basic statements of psychoanalysis
Freud and his followers developed the main postulates of psychoanalysis:
• behavior, experience and knowledge of the individual are determined by unconscious mental drives;
• awareness of attractions leads to inclusion of protective mechanisms, and this process may result in psychological resistance;
• early childhood events predetermine individual development;
• mental diseases such as neurosis, depression, and unreasonable fear are caused by the conflict of unconscious information from the depths of memory and conscious perception of reality;
• only awareness of unconscious information helps the patient to eliminate its influence on the mental state.
The main directions of psychoanalysis
- Psychology of personality, based on human behavior. This trend can be attributed to three well-known concepts: Freud’s classical psychoanalysis, Adler’s individual psychology, and Jung’s analytical psychology.
- The method of free association that helps to identify the motives of an individual’s behavior, leading to mental disorders.
- Methods of identifying and healing mental illness, based on analysis of the unconscious and, also, on the use of basic psychoanalytical techniques. The psychotherapist’s task is to help the patient to identify the problem created by protective mechanisms of the psyche during the conflict against the unconscious. Then, the patient should recognize and accept this problem.
This method was developed by Freud at the beginning of the 20th century. It allows to treat patients and, at the same time, to conduct research based on practical exercises. The therapy is simple, and it is always the same. Communication of the patient with the doctor is called “the psychoanalytic situation.”
According to this technique, the psychoanalyst should not impose his judgments, life values and worldviews to the patient. The patient should lie down on the couch, turn away from the doctor and describe all his thoughts, feelings and experiences experienced at the moment. Due to the absence of criticism and comments, each described situation is evaluated in its own context, without an imposed point of view. In such conditions, the patient’s thoughts can penetrate the very depths of his psyche, causing fantasies and images from the unconscious. It is possible due to the neurodynamic pressure of attractions generated by this very situation. The main goal of psychoanalysis is to penetrate into the depths of the patient’s consciousness and to verbalize forgotten moments of the past, which complicate life in the present. The lack of psychoanalyst’s intervention allows to study the personality more objectively, to identify experiences related to the unconscious, and to reveal the feelings, which are caused by the conscious and subconscious.
During therapy, the patient manages to replace his anxieties and fears generated by the unconscious by the correct objective conclusions. In the process of treatment, the patient does not see the psychotherapist and perceives it unrealistically. In the existing images, the patient has memories from childhood, but they appear in a new version. Thus, unconscious fantasies are repressed. All unconscious children’s desires are transferred to the doctor. Such a phenomenon in psychoanalysis is called “transfer” or “transposition”. Recalling some forgotten moments from the memory, the patient seems to be experiencing them anew. However, these moments are already evaluated from the position of the present. There is a playback of a long-forgotten moment in miniature, i.e., transfer to the past.
Techniques of psychoanalysis
There are five main techniques of psychoanalysis used for the treatment of psychological disorders.
Method of free associations
This method was first tested in 1879 by Francis Galton. Galton conducted the experiment on himself. Galton took 75 cards and wrote different words on them. Then he was pulling out one card at a time and writing down all the thoughts that were coming to him during the reading. For personal reasons, Galton refused to publish the results, saying that they expose the person’s essence too much.
The core of this method is in the patient’s statements. The doctor invites him to say aloud everything he is thinking about at the moment. It is not necessary to “filter” thoughts, considering them ridiculous, absurd, or even shameful. Often, patients have a feeling of resistance due to the seeming absurdity of the situation. The lack of theme and support from the interlocutor is confusing. Therefore, this method involves several sessions. The patient should get accustomed to one-way communication, in order to feel confident.
A standard psychotherapist session lasts 50 minutes. However, each psychoanalyst can set his own time frames. For example, Jacques Lacan believed that each patient is individual. Some people can speak up in a few minutes, but others are not able to cope with the task during the while session.
The method of free associations is based on unconscious processes of the psyche. The patient is relaxed, and free associations encourage repressed memories to float to the surface of consciousness. A person differently assesses the conflict of personality from the past, and the release of psychic energy occurs.
Interpretation of dreams
Freud regarded the patients’ dreams as the main guides to the subconscious. In 1900, his first major work, “The Interpretation of Dreams”, was published. The term “unconscious” was first mentioned in this research. It should be noted that this is the first Freud’s book published in Russia. Therefore, this work acquainted Russian readers with the views of this famous psychologist.
Freud’s theory is based on the following statements:
- Dream is a distorted manifestation of the unconscious while sleeping; the apparent dream contains hidden information expressing concealed desires.
- The human body needs sleep, but unconscious desires contribute to its violation. Dreams preserve sleep, being a barrier to the unconscious.
- Dreams arise because of thoughts, turning into images. They undergo secondary processing; information thickens and takes on several other forms. The secret content of dreams is replaced by symbols.
In a dream, the person’s “Ego” weakens, defense mechanisms stop working and experiences penetrate into consciousness in the form of illustrated images. Freud called this process the “work of dreams.”
Interpretation of dreams is based on their explanation and the disclosure of hidden content. In addition, the patient is asked to share free associations caused by the dream. As a result, there is an awareness of real incidents that caused a certain image in a dream.
One of the main stages of the psychoanalyst’s communication with the patient is to reveal the root causes of mental disorder and their explanation to the patient. Becoming aware of the true problem’s cause, the patient understands that his anxiety does not have any ground. .
Pathogenic experiences leading to neurosis occur as a result of repeated unsuccessful attempts to neutralize negative emotions. The internal mechanisms of psychological defense are responsible for this work, and these mechanisms are fighting with the unconscious.
Interpretation process consists of three stages:
- Identification of the patient’s psychological problems;
- Interpreting the root causes of the problem to the patient.
Here, the main task of the psychoanalyst is to identify the most problematic defense mechanisms of the “Ego” that cause the patient’s neurosis. Patient’s awareness of personal problems leads to their eradication, but the main obstacle is the “Ego”. The main task of the psychologist is to explain the patient that he should not try to overcome his “Ego”. On the contrary, the patient should realize its protective functions and understand that in this case they are no longer needed.
This method is used in order to transfer the emotions experienced in the past to another person. In this case, this person is a psychoanalyst. Experiences caused by psychological trauma in early childhood unconsciously determine the behavior and psychological state of the individual. Psychotherapist acts as a phantom that takes negative emotions on himself. The transfer analysis consists of several stages:
• search for the main causes of psychological disorder and resulting behaviors of the patient;
• joint processing of the problem and assistance in its eradication.
Promising schools and directions of psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis was first mentioned as an effective therapy of the patients’ treatment over a hundred years ago. During this period, many areas and schools have emerged that studied the depths of human personality and looked for the ways to treat mental illness. All trends are based on the “classical theory of attractions” by Z. Freud. This theory served as the foundation for all branches of psychoanalysis.
There are several areas of psychoanalysis that managed to occupy their own niche in the field of psychology.
This direction puts Ego in the first place. The concept of ego-psychology was developed by E. Erickson, A. Freud, E. Glover, H. Hartmann, M. Mahler and R. Spitz. Special attention is paid to the issues of autonomy and individual freedom, the ability to adapt and personal work of the individual.
Ego psychology is based on the interpretation of data from child psychoanalysis. Initially, there were two parallel directions of ego-psychology. H. Hartmann investigated the secondary sides of the “Self”, A. Freud focused on protective mechanisms. However, in both cases, the “Self” was represented as the formative power of the individual. A little later, E. Erickson, a student of A. Freud, began a profound study of personal development, distinguished its age stages and crises.
Theory of Object Relations
According to this theory, the psyche is a set of “internal objects” that in a certain way perceive objects of reality: people and what is happening around. This theory is based on the psychodynamic theory. The main concept is that individual’s behavior in society and his attitude to life situations result from the features of his infant age. If a child was abused by the parents, then in adulthood, he will expect cruelty from other people on an unconscious level.
Jacques Lacan was a distinguishing psychoanalyst and made an undeniable contribution to the study of psychoanalysis. During the first years of work, Lacan was an ardent supporter of the Freudian concept; he was urging his colleagues to return “back to Freud.” During profound study of psychoanalysis, Lacan departed from the teachings of his teacher and developed his own concepts.
The psychologist’s teaching is based on three components: the imaginary, the symbolic and the real. Using this structure, he developed a scheme in the form of three rings. The scheme was based on the mathematical model of “Borromeo’s rings”. Lacan believes that identifying the main source of anxiety caused by the unconscious, and its comprehension is not enough for the full therapeutic effect. The treatment will be successful if it is possible to disengage the model, neutralizing at least one of the ring’s components.
In 1963, the psychologist founded the Paris School of Freudianism. Lacan headed this school until his death. In addition, several other schools were established by the followers of Lacan:
- International Lacanian Association, 1982, organized by Sh. Melman;
- School of Lacanian psychoanalysis, formed in 1985 by R. Lethieu, J. Allush and Guy Le Gofe;
- School of Laconian field;
- Group of Freudian field;
- New Laconian School;
- World Association of Psychoanalysis;
- Lacanian psychoanalysis group.
Self-psychology of H. Kohut
This direction was elaborated by H. Kohut from Chicago. He developed his own concept in the 1960s – 1980s. He studied and rethought existing theories of psychoanalysis. In his practice, the psychologist treated patients with narcissistic inclinations.
This concept was developed by G. Sullivan and K. Thompson. Clinical success has been achieved when treating the patients with schizophrenia. G. Sullivan changed the technique of psychoanalysis and rethought the role of the psychotherapist. The interpersonal concept suggests that the unit of analysis is not a personality, as usual, but an interpersonal situation.
This concept is based on the self-psychology of H. Kohut. At the basis of this theory, R. Stolorow and his colleagues developed a new direction. In the process of work, the authors identified three main components of psychoanalysis: self-concept, self-object transference, and empathic-introspective method.
Why do people turn to a psychoanalyst
Modern society more than ever needs the services of a psychoanalyst. A person’s workload and personal problems negatively affect the psyche and, ultimately, the body suffers. It is very difficult to overcome psychological overstrain independently, so people turn to the specialist.
Psychological overstrain is very difficult to overcome on their own and people turn to a specialist.
There are many techniques and methods of fight with mental suffering, but psychoanalysis is still the most efficient method. Although efficient treatment requires a large amount of time and effort, patients prefer to choose this particular concept. Psychoanalysis owes its popularity to the following factors:
- with the help of analytical therapy, the patient learns new information about his own “Self”, gets acquainted with his own inner world, assesses his own desires, possibilities and drawbacks;
- after having learned to find contact with his own “Self”, a person begins to understand other people better, it is easier for him to join society. The patient becomes more tolerant to drawbacks and mistakes of close people. He develops another view on his life situation:
- a person understands that he is the part of outside world and overestimates his location in this world, he understands the value of feelings: love, hate and compassion; it is easier for him to tolerate failures and mistakes, irreversibility of time passage and various restrictions.
The treatment by means of psychoanalytic therapy is long lasting, but the result is very effective. The patient, having got rid of psychological problems, remains calm for many years and maintains the ability to assess the situation objectively. It becomes possible because, with the help of psychotherapy sessions, the patient learns to investigate his own inner world and to find his problems independently.
How to become a psychoanalyst
When psychoanalysis was formed as a separate concept, due attention was paid to the training of specialists. In 1920, the first institute was opened in Berlin, providing professional education for psychoanalysts.
Currently, in order to obtain a license for practicing psychoanalytical activities, one must have general professional training in the form of a higher humanitarian education lasting from 1,800 hours. In addition, psychological training is necessary.
Psychological training is a second higher education that lasts 4-5 years. During this period, it is necessary to listen to 1,400 academic hours at least. As a result of this training, the applicant gets a narrower specialization; he studies the main methods and techniques of psychoanalysis, learns to communicate with patients, to identify the psychological problem and to interpret the results correctly.
There are educational organizations in Russia preparing specialists of similar qualifications. In order to start professional education, a person must have a psychological or a medical education and some practical experience in the field of psychotherapy. In order to enter the institute, you must have an interview with an analyst training organization. During conversation with a potential applicant, a specialist evaluates his level, paying attention to the following qualities:
- personal integrity;
- desire to learn new things not only in the external world, but also in the internal one;
- emotional maturity.
Before entering the institute, preliminary personal psychoanalysis of the applicant is compulsory. After three sessions, the commission makes a decision on suitability for training. If the verdict is positive, the time of candidate seminars is scheduled.
If a person has experience as a psychoanalyst, then the procedure of personal psychoanalysis is not required. At the seminars, candidates study theoretical foundations and techniques of psychoanalysis, become familiar with new concepts and develop practical skills. At the same time, they learn to study their own inner world and to reach the unconscious.
The first study case guided by a training analyst is allowed to the applicant after two semesters of study. The candidate must preliminarily build up his clinical material. After a positive decision, he is permitted to work with the patient.
If the first academic case gave positive results, then the second one is allowed. It takes place one year after the beginning of the first case. The second case also requires test interviews with analysts. When the applicant successfully executes two training cases, he is allowed to do qualification tests.
Theoretical training and emotional maturity of the psychoanalyst must be at a professional level; therefore, the standards of education are very high. Effectiveness of the psychoanalyst depends on his ability to perceive and to interpret the information received. Among other important factors, there are motivation for profound study of psychoanalysis and the search of new concepts.